1950/1972 A brief history of the GULF AVIATION Company and its involvement in the air mail transportation.

This article issued in 2012 was the basis of my research on airmail in the Gulf countries. Following the collection that it was the direct expression won two Vermeil in Sharjah exhibitions in 2013 and 2015.

This brief work on post-war Gulf air mail is supposed to be a stimulating starting point for a more detailed study on this fascinating topic.

A great technical progress in the aircraft took place during the Second World War, both numerically as aircraft and also as pilots. Which meant that a large number of former military pilots was auto-converted to civilian pilots, sometimes with entrepreneurial ambitions. There was a large amount of low cost aircraft; for these dynamic pilots-entrepreneurs the problem was to enter with few financial resources in the lucrative air routes. The profitable air routes unfortunately remained in the hands of the big airlines who possessed at the time of the war outbreak. As in the case of BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation). Freddie Bosworth, a former British military pilot, immediately after the war he decided to use the available aircraft for to implant an aero-taxi transport service between Bahrain and Dhahran. It was a new unofficial line, connected Dhahran airport used by TWA with Bahrain international airport used by BOAC. The new airline was used almost exclusively by engineers and workers of the oil companies, because in this time begin the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon fields in Saudi Arabia but also in the north Qatar. The activity of Freddie Bosworth began by use of a twin-engine Avro Anson demilitarized (fig. 1) with the logistical support of the BOAC. Probably, it is not the only line of the air-taxis existing.

1fig.1 – Postcard of the GF G-VROE, an Avro Anson XIX, on 1954. Can be seen the logo of the Royal Mail on the tail of the aircraft. 

On 24 March 1950, with the financial support of the Bahrain’s trader Mr. Hussain Yateem, Freddie Bosworth founded the “Gulf Aviation” airline. The fleet consisting of six Avro Anson, was enriched by three De Havilland DH.86 Bs (Figure 2).

2fig.2 – The De Havilland DH.86 Bs.

Unfortunately, on 9 June 1951, the visionary and courageous Freddie Bosworth he lost his life in an aerial show in Croydon, south of London. In October 1951 a change occurs in ownership level, BOAC became the company’s largest shareholder with 22% and simultaneously making complete technical support. This was guaranteed until the end of 1973, in fact, from 1 January 1974, the kingdoms of Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and UAE bought the shares held by BOAC.

From the postal history point of view is worth remembering that the west coast of the Persian Gulf had already been served, from the first half of the thirties, by the Imperial Airways line London-Sydney with stops in Kuwait (discontinuous), Bahrain and Sharjah (fig. 3). The latter, a short distance from Dubai, Ajman, Umm Al Qiwain and Ras Al Khaima, served also these localities. Relatively common the covers sent from Dubai, while those originated from the others sheikdoms are progressively much more elusive to see.

3fig.3 – The friction occurred in 1932 between Iran and Britain caused many consequences, one of which was the change of the air route on the London-Delhi Imperial Airways line. The Iranians airports of Bushire, Linghe and Jask were replaced with those of Bahrain and Sharjah. By now begins the history of aviation in the Gulf countries.

Let us return to the aero-taxi period, which was the private service that Freddie Bosworth made between the airports of El Muharrak in Bahrain and Dhahran in Saudi Arabia, for the transport of people and materials for hydrocarbon fields research. At the time the two locations were important air-stop, respectively for BOAC and TWA, the latter based a short distance of the oil wells of ARAMCO (formerly CASOC). The mail carried by this private airplane service between Dhahran and El Muharrak in the period 1945-1950 are rare because not always show the Bahrain transit cancel applied by the Island’s postal service. Only a few routing mark signs are seen, even in the early fifties (fig. 4 and 5).

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fig.4 – This cover is the first that I know certainly carried by the Aero-taxi service run by Freddie Bosworth. In fact, it departs from Khobar near Dhahran on 9 April 1947 and transit in Bahrain on the same day (back applied Donaldson #5C cancel). This was only possible with air transport. The activity of Freddie Bosworth Aero-taxi starts on the route Dhahran-Bahrain and Bahrain-Doha, and only at the beginning of 1950 is made official with founding Gulf Aviation Company.

5fig.5 – As already said, the Saudi locality of Daharan since the beginning of Gulf Aviation activities, was one of his terminal. The frequency of flights from the hub airport of Bahrain was preferable for the European destinations. Served by B.O.A.C. the airport of Bahrain was very active. The cover above was sent from Daharan on 1/12/1950 (date handwritten in the postmarks) and addressed to Switzerland. The prefered B.O.A.C. routing was indicated by the rare linear black seal “VIA BAHRAIN” applied on the envelope, implying so Gulf Aviation in the transport from Daharan to Bahrain (I recorded only three covers with this seal).

The period that interests most, namely fifties, sixties until the early seventies, result to be when the Gulf Aviation company was registered in all respects. Supported by BOAC was allowed to transportation of air mail, upon agreement with the various postal administrations, first with the Royal Mail and then with the postal administrations that replaced it. Gulf Aviation, until the first half of the sixties, was the only airline able to connect the various parts of west coastal of Persian Gulf between them. As said, the company began operating in March 1950 on the routes Bahrain-Dhahran, followed by the Bahrain-Doha on 16 May and then increase after a few weeks by Sharjah air-stop. Only in 1954 was formalized the connection with Abu Dhabi, which before was discontinuous on the air route to Sharjah (Fig. 6, 7 and 8).

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figures 6 and 7 – Gulf Aviation timetable, issued in March 1955. Inside, in addition to the departure times of flights, stands out the advertising of the camera “Bolex” of which the Yateem brothers were dealers. Mr Hussain Yateem was the co-founder along with Freddie Bosworth of Gulf Aviation in 1950.

8fig. 8 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1954.

The paper’s witnesses of this period are not common, there are few covers come down to us (Fig. 9). Already by 1957 the company extended its line up to Muscat in Oman (Fig. 10).

9fig. 9 – Before the opening of the air service of Gulf Aviation in 1950, the few known covers departing from Qatar, were carried by hand until Bahrain. This habit continues for some time even after the opening of the post office in Doha, as in the case of the envelope above sent from the Qatari capital to Dubai on 22/6/1955. There were very few individuals who took care of by a cheap fee. One of these was Mr. “Mohamed Bin Khalife Artisanat n. 5 Al Nidal”. (It is not known as what is “Artisanat n. 5 Al Nidal”). I would add that the covers direct or departing from Dubai until October 1960 were systematically transported via Sharjah.

10fig. 10 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1957.

The increase of trade relations between the states of the Persian Gulf, push the company to reach the Kuwait in 1958 with an agreement that also included the Kuwait Airways (Fig. 11 and 12).

11fig. 11 – Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1958 reached Kuwait.

12fig. 12 – In 1958, Gulf Aviation fixed another milestone by creating the new twice per week air connection Bahrain-Kuwait. Almost certainly, this was done by an agreement which also allowed the Kuwait Airways (KU) to make a similar connection.

By now the localities served are almost all Sheikdoms and the mail travels regularly and smoothly (Fig. 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17).

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figures 13 and 14 – Even in the Gulf’s countries, now a correspondence between the different states become customary and at the same time decrease the shipping timing: this cover sent from Dubai via Sharjah, arrived the same day in Manama, Bahrain, attested by cancel recorded by Donaldson #29. The right cover posted in Muscat on Sunday 25/1/1959, according to the timetables of the time although without date of arrival, touched his Qatari destination on the same day at 15:20 and was delivered the next day, Monday 26/1/1959.

16fig.15 – Already in 1969 the postal administration of Dubai felt the need to commemorate the means of mail transportation that had been used to develop its economy in the last 60 years.

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figures 16 and 17 – Posted in Muscat on 6/12/1959, this Registered cover left the next day on Monday 7/12/1959 at 10:15 with the flight GF10 made by a De Havilland Heron aircraft on the route Muscat-Sharjah-Doha-Bahrain. On 11/12/1959 by BOAC arrived in Rome at 07:00 and the same day was delivered to the post office of Foligno (back cancel).

The second is a nice cover carried by the Gulf Aviation flight on the route Muscat-Sharjah-Doha-(Bahrain). Consigned to the post of Muscat on 12/08/1969 was embarked the next day on the GF402 flight, departing at 13:45 and arrived in Doha at 15:45 of the same day to be promptly delivered to the post office.

The Dubai airport was inaugurated on 30 September 1960, it born with the will to be the hub of the south area coast and this leads to establish a direct air link between Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah in 1962 (Fig. 18).

18fig. 18 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1962.

The experiment resulting a negative profit and was stopped shortly after (I am almost certain that the initiative was born when even the Ras Al Khaimah’s Sheik became owner of Gulf Aviation shares). In late 1964 another negative profit air-route was created: the direct connection Sharjah-Kor Fakhan (Fig. 19) which was shut down on September 1965.

19fig. 19 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1965.

Is important to consider and remember that the air hub of the company is based in Bahrain, and consequential the postal concentration base for mail remains on that island until the end of sixties (Fig. 20).

20fig.20 – Since 1971 began the flights of Gulf Aviation from Dubai to Karachi. The envelope above was addressed to Dukhan, Qatar and was carried by this flight, the mail-bag was opened in Dubai which was also the postal sorting hub of Trucial States.

Only since 1965 began to take shape the centrality of Dubai, which will become slowly airport of regional significance, while that of Sharjah loses importance (Fig. 21, 22 and 23). For example the MEA (Lebanese airline company), since 1966 beginning a flight Beirut-Dubai. On 1967 finally is made the Dubai-Al Ain air-route that was performed by a Gulf Aviation flight to complete the connections between the localities truly active (Figures 24, 25 and 26).

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fig.21 – Many times the “Philatelic” shipments are much more interesting than commercial, as in the case of this registered air cover, sent from Beirut and addressed to Fujeira. The letter arrived in Dubai was taken over by the postal agent of Fujeira that carried him by car to the destination.

22fig.22 – Registered air mail cover sent on 24/9/1972 and transported by car from Ras Al Khaima to the postal hub of Dubai. This time appears the transit cancel affixed on 26 September 1972. Were used also Shaikh Saqr stamps to pay this commercial shipment, direct to the headquarters of “The British Bank of the Middle East” in London.

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fig.23 – This is an uncommon air cover sent from Beirut on 28/11/1972 to Sharjah where arrived on 4/12/1972.

19fig. 24 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1965.

24fig. 25 – Map of Gulf Aviation air-routes in 1967.

25fig.26 – By the end of 1967, when the post office was opened, Al Ain (territory of Abu Dhabi) was connected with Dubai by a DC3 aircraft. The fact that the connection was done to Dubai and not to Abu Dhabi, is explained that Dubai had become the hub of postal reference for the Trucial States.

I add that the dates of departure, transfer and arrival of the covers are taken from the timetable outlined of Gulf Aviation company and the others air company involved for the years between 1950 and 1973. I conclude by stating that without the web page of  timetableimages this article could not have been written.

Reflections of Postal History – The Jdita cover

With this short article begins a series of reflections “of” and “on” Postal History.

The “so-called lucky”, who own my last book that cataloged the postmarks used or appeared in the 1918-1945 period in the Lebanese territory (fig. 1), they know certainly that I have included in the chapter of “resumption of postal service” at pages 13 and 15, two maps with the location of post offices operating in the period 1919 and 1920 (fig. 2 and 3).

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Figures 1, 2 and 3 respectively: the book catalog, the map of the first 1919 and the map of the half 1920.

Their inserting was used as analytical support to assess the quality and quantity of the postal service in the two areas: one administered by the French and the other by the Syrian Government. Their belonging to one or another administration, was made by identifying the stamps used in the locations, admitting logically that stamps were the direct emanation of the respective authorities emitting. I split the territory in half lengthwise, considering and using the morphological limits as a border line. Bounded by the mountains of Lebanon, from Hermel in the north to up Hasbani River in the south, the right area was under Syrian Government administration with the exception of Zahle and apparently of Merdjayoun but with the attribution error of Jdita village in the “French” yellow area (fig. 4).

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Fig. 4: the attribution error of Jdita village in the “French” yellow area.

The fact is that: a) I had only seen a Jdita envelope with ottoman negative cancel on 1 Piastre E.E.F. stamp (figures 5 and 6), b) looking at the maps you can see that the village is located to the left of the Litani River, c) according to a logic of simplifying, the physical positioning tends to be interpreted as a reason of belonging. There’s nothing more wrong in the Middle East, and especially at that time in the analyzed area.

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Figures 5 and 6: cover from Jdita to Egypt sent on 1919 and the ottoman negative cancel of Jdita.

What has happened it is easy to imagine: wonderfully appears on the market an envelope with the Jdita negative cancel on 1 Piastre of the Kingdom of Syria stamp. The envelope was addressed to a New York company of clear Lebanese origin, and precisely the Sahadi brothers originating of the Jdita village (fig. 7). By gradation of the stamp’s color, one can determine on the period August/October 1920 the date of envelope shipping.

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Fig. 7: the Jdita cover.

I do not know whether it is historically important to establish that Jdita was part of the territory administered by the Syrian government or the French one, but I think is important that the discovery of a simple paper’s witness can become a real “historical witness” through which we can assert that the village of Jdita, current in the Lebanese territory, by end of 1918 to first half of 1920, was part of the great area administered by the Syrian Government.

1954, Union Postale Arabe

Egypte (1954-55)

Among its efforts to coordinate their economic life, the founders of the Arab league held their first Arab postal union meeting in July 1954. The postal administration of Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Yemen released a joint issue of stamps to commemorate the event on 01/01/1955.

Fig1

Fig.1 – Libyan FDC.

Fig2

Fig2 – Jordanian Issue.

Fig3

Fig 3 – KSA Issue.

Fig4

Fig 4- Syrian Issue.

Fig5

Fig.5 – Lebanon FDC.

Fig6a

Fig-6 –Missing Gulf.

Each country issued 3 different values. The stamps depicts a globe with arabesque on background. If we take a closer look to the globe we notice a poor mapping. The Persian or Arab Gulf is missing (red arrow)! This error is not included on any of the Lebanon stamps!

Fig7a

Fig 7 – Another example.

One can reasonably rule out a propaganda stamp on which the mapping error is voluntary in order to claim a territorial entity at the expense of a neighboring country. The dispute over the name of the body of water separating the Iranian plateau, historically and internationally known as the Persian Gulf, after the land of Persia (Iran), has only occurred since the 1960s with the emergence of Arab nationalism.

fig8a

Fig.8 – Gulf.

I thought it is interesting to report this information and to incite philatelist to examine more carefully details on stamps.

Ashampoo_Snap_2015.10.27_21h08m29s_025_ Fadi

 

« Smoking or health, the choice is yours »

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I quit smoking by 30 June 2015, so promptly and with great conviction I posted Fadi’s article.

B. L.

 

Next May 31, 2016 will be a no tobacco day, a campaign led by the

World Health Organisation (WHO). WHO always had close links with philately. WHO has always used postage stamps as a means of information, of raising awareness, of prevention and of commemoration. We take this opportunity to review anti-tobacco items in Lebanese philately.

Smoking is a major health problem in Lebanon. A recent epidemiological study showed that 57 % of respondents were smokers: 19% smoke cigarettes, narguileh 17% and 20% are mixed smokers. As regards the average age of smoking hookah, is around 35 years, knowing that most of them smoked their first narguileh at the age of 16.

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Fig.1 Only Lebanese stamp where a narguileh is illustrated

Until recently, smoking nargileh was a pastime typically enjoyed by old people across the Arab world. Over the past 10 years, however, it has become a global phenomenon among young people with so-called hookah lounges popping up from San Francisco to Tokyo offering a variety of sweet and fruity flavors. Studies seems to confirm that women are more addicted to hookah than men. Surprisingly, when we study propaganda /advertising slogan from Lebanon on covers, we found that in 1972 the Lebanese post office issued a slogan in French and Arabic to aware citizens from the dangers of smoking. This slogan was a receival cancel in Beirut. One can conclude that this message was meant to the Lebanese.

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Fig.2: Internal hotel cover from Broumana to Ajeltoun with Beirut anti-tobacco propaganda transit cancel on July 1972.

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Fig.3: Incoming mail from Oman to Beirut, with anti-tobacco propaganda arrival cancel on October 1972

This slogan existed at least 4 months in 1972. A very limited duration. It was probably a national campaign because to the best of my knowledge there was no international campaign going on. Besides, other local Medias (press, TV) didn’t participate to this awareness program. No wonder then that positive results on prevalence of smoking behavior didn’t follow.  But it had the virtue to exist! Lebanon was a precursor, not only in the Middle East but in the world. Very few countries initiated such a program at that time. Koweït has a similor initiative but in 1976. However, it should also be pointed out the Ras Al Khaima’s seal affixed by hand used in 1972, show in fig 5.

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Fig.4: Outgoing cover from Kuwait to west-Germany with Arabic/English anti-tobacco propaganda.

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Fig.5: Cover sent from Ras al Khaima to Cyprus with Arabic/English anti-tobacco propaganda seal.

The largest single issue of antismoking stamps appeared only in April 1980 when the World Health Day theme was “Smoking or health, the choice is yours”. Cardiovascular and respiratory disease (particularly lung cancer) were some of the most prominent topics in these issues all over the world.Lebanon was absent from this campaign probably due to the civil war that was going on.  By publishing Law N°174 on March 7, 2006, Lebanon became a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco. On 2 August  2010 Libanpost issued two stamps promoting anti drug/cigarette addiction campaign (Fig. 6).

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Fig.6

The stamps illustrate the principle and value of a visual message rather than text in a specific language in order to reach a great wilder public.

But will the message be understood???

Fadi

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A short review of a Lebanese iconic beer

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Founded in 1933 under the French mandate by the JABRE family at Bauchrieh, the brewery was initially named « Brasserie et malterie Franco-libano-syrienne ». It was and remains the only Lebanese brewery. Its production turned around 1000 bottle/hour at that time.

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1935-Outgoing cover with Grand-Liban stamps overprinted with french and arabic “République Libanaise”.

Beer is a fermented beverage, prepared from malt, corn and hops which give the bitterness. Czechoslovakia had a long-time malt industry tradition. No wonder then we can find commercial covers between Prague and Bauchrieh. Klatscher & Lorenz was for instance an established malting firm in Prague. It ceased its trading activity in April 1939.

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1939-Outgoing cover with regular Lebanese stamps overprinted with new value.

After the 1950’s, the brewery was renamed: « Brasserie & Malterie-Almaza » and we find advertisement on reverse where the brewers state that “Beer with its low alcoholic rate makes it a hygienic and refreshing drink with medical virtues”. Scientific truth or advertising? We let you the judge of such statement…

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1962- Nice decorated outgoing cover to one of Europe’s largest breweries.

It is only after the civil war of Lebanon in the nineties that the brewery takes its final name: “Brasserie Almaza S.A.L.”.

This review was just an occasion to say:

 “Kesak ya friends”

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  Fadi

Beirut, mixed use of various issues stamps from the end of 1918 to the half of 1920

After the 7 October 1918, although nominally under French military occupation, the majority of soldiers and means served to occupy Beirut, were the British ones coming from Palestine. We must not forget that the city was a real field of ruins in the wake of urban demolition implemented by the Turkish governor and on a human level an environment devastated by two years of famine followed by epidemics that decimated the population. This was the reality in which must be imagined the Turkish’s departure and the arrival of the Entente troops. According to international law, among the tasks of the new occupants, was to be allowed the resumption of public functions such as the postal service. In Beirut this was not possible immediately. So, British favored the use of their military postal structure to private citizens who request it. This system had already been adopted in Palestine in the early days of occupation, as emergency service for private use by the civilians population. The first covers known regularly franked with British stamps are dated from the second half of October 1918, their use for civilians has lasted until 4 December 1918 (fig. 1).

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(fig. 1) Cover containing a letter written by a Beirut’s resident and sent on 4 December 1918 to Egypt through the Field Post Office SZ 8. Is the last date recorded for the British stamps used by civilian in the F.P.O. based in Beirut.

Since November 1918 in the military postal office they were also used E.E.F. stamps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force), their value was expressed in Egyptian currency. The use in F.P.O. by Beirut’s residents is documented until 14 December 1918 (fig. 2).

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(fig. 2) Cover containing a letter written by an American resident in Beirut  and sent on 14 December 1918 to USA through the Field Post Office SZ 8. Is the last date that I know for the E.E.F. stamps used by civilian in the F.P.O. based Beirut.

I don’t know the mixed-use of British and E.E.F. stamps on the same envelope or Post card. From mid-December 1918 it was reopened the civil post office using the E.E.F. stamps already experienced (fig. 3).

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(fig. 3) Cover sent on 21 December 1918 to Egypt. The civil post office, closed from early October to mid-December, it had been re-open using the existing ottoman cancels (up the Beyrouth #16).

Only in November 1919, with the landing of other French troops led by General Gouraud, were overprinted French stamps using a small stock brought for the military postal service: on 21 November 1919 appears the first T.E.O. issue stamps (fig. 4).

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(fig. 4) Beirut’s domestic cover sent on 29 November 1919 franked with 5 mill green overprinted T.E.O. on French stamp. The use of this stamps issue is rare on cover.

This time coming by the old French civil Post, were exhumed the expired Levant stamps that were overprinted as the previous with the new value still in Egyptian currency (fig. 5). Theoretically genuine mixed postage use exist between the two T.E.O. issues.

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(fig. 5) Right franked rate for letters to O.E.T.A. territories for this cover sent from Beirut on 28 December 1919 to Haifa, Palestine. The postage was paid by 5 mill green overprinted T.E.O. on Levant stamp. The use of this stamps issue is relatively common on Beirut’s covers.

From the day of issue on 1 December 1919 unlike the previous, used only in Beirut, the new T.E.O. stamps were widespread throughout the Levant’s territory at the time occupied by the French. I do not know mixed between E.E.F. and the first T.E.O. issue. Instead I know two covers with mixed E.E.F. and second T.E.O. issue, dated respectively 12 and 21 December 1919 (figures 6 and 7).

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(figures 6 and 7) Two nice mixed. The first is a post card of thanksgiving, sent from Beirut on 12 December 1919 for the city, mixed franking using 1 mill T.E.O. and 2 mill E.E.F. stamps. The second a cover sent from Beirut on 21 December 1919 to Liverpool “Inglisi”, mixed franked by two twins values of 5 mill stamps. Both mixed are very rare.

Meanwhile, the French administration had proceeded to withdrawal the E.E.F. stamps that could be changed with T.E.O. stamps until 5 January 1920. The last date I recorded of E.E.F. used in Beirut was a 5mill stamp on commercial postcard on 2 January 1920 (fig. 8), but this does not exclude other lucky discoveries with posthumous dates.

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(fig. 8) Post card sent on 2 January 1920 franked with 5 mill Orange E.E.F. stamp. Is the last date that I know for the E.E.F. stamps genuinely used in Beirut.

The transition from the status of “Territoires Enemy Occupés” in the “Occupation Militaire Française”, forced in February 1920 the postal administration to issue stamps with new overprint O.M.F. Syrie, still with value in Egyptian currency. Furthermore not withdrawn the T.E.O. stamps. From this moment it is possible their mixed use on cover (figures 9/12).

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(figures 9 and 10) The first letter was sent by a known and talented Beirut’s collector on 24 February 1920, the mixed postage of 1 Piastre was “composed” by a block of four of 1 mill T.E.O. together with 1, 2 and 3 mill O.M.F. stamps of the first printing in thin characters.
The second mixed T.E.O. and O.M.F. stamps, is a commercial registered double rate cover (5m + 3m + 1P) sent from Beirut on 11 March 1920 to Alep with O.M.F. overprint in fats characters.

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(figures 11 and 12) Two more mixed. The first is similar to the previous cover but shipped the day after, 12 March 1920, again to Aleppo. The second, sent to France on 25 March 1920, was composed by a pair of 3 mill in thin characters and 4 mill T.E.O. stamp.

The registered letter sent from Beirut on 1 April 1920 to Palestine (fig. 13) is properly franked for 1 Piastre and half (5 mill for letter direct in O.E.T.A. territories and 1P for Registered fees). Do not be fooled, this is not a mixed triple: the stamp of 5 Piastres first TEO issue, even if it had not been demonetized, has been placed just to be canceled for the benefit of the unfortunate recipient Capt. R. A. Alphert, which on arrival was no longer in Bir Salem near Ludd.

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(fig. 13) cover with Registered number 163 repeated two times.

Theoretically after 30 April 1920 ends up the possible contemporary  use on cover of the two issue creating mixed postage (figures 14 and 15).

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(figures 14 and 15) Two last mixed. The first is a double rated cover to foreign (1P + 6mill), sent on 2 April 1920 to Switzerland. The second, franked for 1 Piastre, was sent to Galata on 7 April 1920 and show the error “S” inverted in the T.E.O. value of 4 mill.

The French government made it compulsory to use the new Syrian Pound that was worth ⅓ of Egyptian Pound. They were issued paper money and also stamps with values in “centimes” and Piastres (figures 16 and 17).

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(figures 16 and 17) A good souvenir: 1 Syrian Piastre. It is curious that the French administration has used the services of a British company to print paper money to be used in the area that she administered. The second picture reproduces a cover franked at double rate to foreign (3P + 1,75P), sent from Beirut on 14 May 1920 to England. All postage was paid by the new O.M.F. stamps with value in Syrian Pound.

The O.M.F. stamps with value in Syrian currency, came into use from 1 May 1920. A registered envelope sent to Constantinople, still franked with T.E.O. values stamps (Fig. 18), attest that for at least the first half of May, the old T.E.O. stamps still had values and mixed postage in Egyptian and Syrian currency can exist. Unfortunately I do not have but I saw her.

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(fig. 18) This Registered cover has the great virtue of witnessing the tolerated use of old Egyptian currency stamps on 11 May 1920, after more of a week it had come into use the new Syrian currency.

 

Bernardo Longo